Stains in imitation of various kinds of wood

This is a general guideline for different stains in imitation of various kinds of wood we need to apply for our deck and patio and outdoor panels in New Zealand weathers.

  1. Mahogany color, dark: Boil half a pound of madder and two ounces of log wood chips in a gallon of water, and brush well over while hot ; when dry, go over the whole with a pearl-ash solution, two drachma to the quart.
  2. In imitation of Botany Bay wood.
    Boil half a pound of French berries, the unripe berries of the rhesus infectious, in two quarts of water, till of deep yellow, and while boiling hot give two or three coats to the work. If a deeper color is desired, give a coat of log wood decoration over the yellow ; when nearly dry, form the grain with black stain, used hot, and when dry, rub over the work thoroughly with a dry woolen cloth and varnish.
  3. Boil a pound of indigo, two pounds of log wood, and three ounces of alum in a gallon of water ; brush well over until thoroughly stained.
  4. Stain for blue: Dissolve copper filings in aqua fresh; brush the wood with it, and then go over the work with a hot solution of pearl-ash, two ounces to a quart of water till it assumes a perfectly blue color.
  5. Black stain for iron works:
    To One gallon of vinegar, add a quarter of a pound of iron rust ; let it stand for a week; then add a pound of dry lamp-black, and three-quarters of a pound of coppers ; stir it up for a couple of days. Lay five or six coats on your work with a sponge, allowing it to dry between each coat. Polish with linseed oil and a soft woolen rag, and it will have the appearance of ebony.
  6. Black walnut: Burnt umber mixed in vinegar, or stale ale ; apply with a sponge. Solution should be very thin ; this will require from two to four coats of varnish.
  7. Boil half a pound of log wood chips in two quarts of water, add an ounce of pearl ash, and apply hot with a brush ; then take two quarts of the log wood decoration, and half an ounce of verdigris, and the same of coppers, strain and throw in a half-a-pound of iron-rust. Brush the work well with this, and oil.
  8. Give three coats with a solution of copper filings in aqua fortis, and repeatedly brush over with the log wood decoration, until the greenness of the copper is destroyed.
  9. Take a pound of log wood chips, a quarter of a pound of Brazil wood, and boil for an hour and a half in a gallon of water. Brush the wood several times with this decoction while hot ; make a decoration of nut-galls, by simmering gently, for three or four days, a quarter of a pound of the galls in two quarts of water ; give the wood three coats of this, and while wet lay on a solution of sulphate of iron, (two ounces to a quart,) and when dry, oil and varnish.
  10. Add to the above stain an ounce of nut-galls, half a pound of log wood chips, and a quarter of a pound of copperas ; lay on three coats, oil well, and you will have a black stain that .will stand n n v kind of weather.
  11. Take half a gallon of vinegar, half a pound of dry lamp-black, and three pounds of iron-dust, sifted; mix, and let stand for a week ; lay three coats of this on while hot, and then rub with linseed oil, and you will have a fine black.
  12. Use the stain used for iron.
  13. Take half a gallon of vinegar, an ounce of bruised nut-galls, of log wood chips, and copperas, each half a pound, boil well ; add half an ounce of the tincture of esquire chloride of iron, formerly called the urinated tincture, and brush on hot.
  14. Drop a little sulfuric,. acid in a small quantity of water, brush over the wood and hold it to the fire ; it will be a fine black and receive a good polish.
  15. Put two ounces of dragon’s blood, bruised, into a quart of oil of turpentine; let the bottle stand in a warm place, shake frequently, and when dissolved, steep the work in the mixture.
  16. Boil one-half pound of logwood chips in two quarts of water ; let cool, and add a hand-full of walnut peelings. Boil again, strain the whole and add one-half pint of vinegar. This stain is designed for beech, maple, etc.
  17. This is simple and quickly done. Mix burnt sienna dry in vinegar, solution to be thin ; apply with a sponge. This can be grained and shaded with the same thickened up, which should be ready prepared in another vessel, and applied while the first coat is wet. If you do not succeed in getting designs to suit, this coat can be rubbed off by saturating your sponge in vinegar and wet-ting up the surface ; will do to varnish in half an hour. The above rule can be observed in graining in ale.
  18. The ground work to be a bright or ange;  Mix burnt sienna in ale or vinegar, same as in No. 3, using a sponge. The grain can be combed out by using a stiff seam brush, such as is used by ship and boat painters, for working paint in seams of the planking ; lights can be rubbed out with a damp cloth. Shade with any of the black stains.
  19. Finish panels first ; next cross pieces ; end with the up-rights. From three to five coats of varnish will be required on all of the distemper staining and gaining.
  20. To prepare walnut to imitate mahogany is simple and has a very desirable effect, which is done in the following manner :
  21. Apply aquafortis to your work by means of a rag made fast to a stick, bound on with twine ; a brush cannot be used, as it would very soon destroy it. Coat the work as evenly as possible and set it in the sun to dry ; if no sun, heat the aquafortis in by a stove.
  22. Finish up with varnish or French polish.
  23. Light red, brown
    Boil half-a-pound of madder and a quarter of a pound of rustic in a gallon of water ; brush over the work when boiling hot until properly stained.
  24. The surface of the work being quite smooth, brush over with a weak solution of Aquafresh, half an ounce to the pint, and then finish with the following : Put four ounces and a half of dragon’s-blood and an ounce of soda, both well bruised, to three pints of spirits of wine. Let it stand in a warm place, shake frequently, strain and lay on with a soft brush, repeating until of a proper color ; polish with linseed oil or varnish. STAIN FOR PURPLE. Brush the work several times with the log wood decoction used for No. 6 black, and when dry give a coat of pearl-ash solution, one drachma to a quart, taking care to lay it on evenly. STAIN FOR RED. Boil a pound of Brazil-wood and an ounce of pearl-ash in a gallon of water, and while hot brush over the work until of a proper color. Dissolve two ounces of alum in a quart of water, and brush the solution over the work before it dries.
  25. Take a gallon of the above stain, acid two more ounces- of pearl-ash ; use hot and brush often with the alum solution.
  26. Use a cold infusion of archival, and brush over with the pearl-ash solution used for No. 6 dark mahogany.
  27. Stains in imitaion of Rosewood.
    Boil half-a-pound of logwood in three pints of water till it is of a very dark red ; add half an ounce of salt of tartar. Stain the work with the liquor while boiling hot, giving three coats ; then with a graining brush form streaks with black stain. Let the work dry, and varnish.
  28. Brush over with the logwood decoction used for the black, three or four times. Put half a pound of iron filings or turning chips into two quarts of vinegar ; then with a graining brush, apply the iron filings solution in the form required, and wax or varnish.
  29. The grainer’s brush may be made by taking an old stub varnish brush and cutting out the bristles at intervals of an eighth of an inch, in the shape of a comb.
  30. Used cold. Alcohol, one gallon; cam-wood, two ounces ; let them stand in a warm place twenty-four hours ; then add extract of logwood, three ounces ; aquafortis, one ounce; and when it is dissolved it is ready for use. It makes a very bright ground, like the most beautiful rose-wood. One, two or more coats, as you desire, over the whole surface.
  31. Use dark stain for waves. Varnish or wax.
  32. YELLOW STAIN
    Brush over with the tincture of turmeric. No. 2.—Warm the work and brush over with weak aquafortis ; then hold to the fire. Varnish or oil, as usual.
  33. CHERRY STAIN
    Soft water, one quart ; anotta, two ounces ; boil in a glazed pipkin until the anotta is dissolved ; add to this a piece of potash half the size of a walnut, letting it remain on the fire from a half to three-fourths of an hour.

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